Urinary stone can affect 1 to 20% of the population and Stone incidence depends on geographical, climatic, ethnic, dietary and genetic factors.
They are commonly seen in kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and uncommonly within prostate and urethra (water pipe). More common in men than women. Commonest symptom is pain which can often be excruciating, often considered worse than labour pains. Diagnostic tests include blood, urine investigations as well as imaging such as plain x-ray, ultrasound and CT scan. Treatment will depend on the stone size, stone location, patients symptoms, signs of urinary infection and kidney function. These include conservative or medical treatment, shock wave treatment, endoscopic/laser treatment and minimally invasive surgery.